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DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

pardon letter
by tizzie

Article by Tuition Point

(b) ‘Can’ Changes into ‘could’ and ‘may’ into ‘might’. Observe the following examples:-1 Rano said, “Reena may come by 11 a.m.” (Direct) Rano said that Reena might come by 11 a.m. (Indirect)2 The servant said, “The slate is broken by Sham.” (Direct) The servant said that the slate was broken by Sham. (Indirect)3 The teacher said, “The match is going on.” (Direct) The teacher said that the match was going on. (Indirect)4 The master said, “The cook has prepared tea.” (Direct) The master said that the cook had prepared tee. . (Indirect)5 The poet said, “It has been blowing hard all day.” (Direct) The poet said that it had been blowing hard all day. (Indirect)6 The student said, “The sun can never rise in the west.” (Direct) The student said that the sun could never rise in the west. (Indirect)But remember that the Present Tense of the Reported Speech does not change if it expresses-(i) A universal truth (ii) A habitual fact

Observe the following sentences:1 Rano said, “Most people have a walk daily.” (Direct) Rano said that most people have a walk daily. (Indirect)2 The teacher said, “The moon revolves round the earth.” (Direct) The teacher said that the moon revolves round the earth. (Indirect)3 Newton said, “The earth is a big magnet.” (Direct) Newton said that the earth is a big magnet. (Indirect)

Rule-3 If the Reporting Verb is in the Past Tense, the Past tense of the Reported Speech changes as under:(a) Past Indefinite changes into Past Perfect.(b) Past Continuous changes into Past Perfect Continuous.(c) Past Perfect and Past Perfect Continuous Tense do not change at all. Observe the following example:-1 The teacher said, “The burglar broke into the office.” (Direct) The teacher said the burglar had broken into the office. (Indirect)2 The slave said, “Bruce was hiding in a cave.” (Direct) The slave said that Bruce had been hiding in a cave. (Indirect)3 The king said, “The soldier had fought bravely.” (Direct) The king said that the soldiers had fought bravely. (Indirect)4 The inn-keeper said, “It had been hailing since 7 a.m.” (Direct) The inn-keeper said that it had been hailing since 7 a.m. (Indirect)

Hand some is that handsome does

Rule-4 If the Reporting Verb is in the Past Tense, the Future Tenses change their shall and will into would.Observe the following examples:1 We said, “We shall go boating on Sunday.” (Direct) We said that we would go boating on Sunday. (Indirect)2 The piper said, “The pipe will lure the rats away.” (Direct)The piper said that the pipe would lure the rats away. (Indirect)

Change in Personal Pronouns

Note the following rules Rule-1 Pronouns of the First Person ( I, we, me, us, my, our,…) are changed after the Person of the Subject of the Reporting Verb.Observe the following examples:1 He said to me, “I do not work on Sunday.” (Direct) He told me that he did not work on Sunday. (Indirect)2 The examiner said to him, “I cannot give more marks.” (Direct) The examiner told him that he could not give more marks. (Indirect)3 She said, ” I will prepare tea in ten minutes.” (Direct) She said that she would prepare tea in ten minutes. (Indirect)

Rule-2 Pronouns of the Second Person (You, Your,…..) are changed after the Person of the object of the Reporting Verb.Observe the following examples:1 He said to me, “You are very intelligent.” (Direct) He told me that I was very intelligent. (Indirect)

2 He said to her, “You are very pretty.” (Direct) He told her that she was very pretty. (Indirect)3 He said to us, “You are all fools.” (Direct) He told us that we were all fools. (Indirect)

Rule-3 Pronouns of the Third Person remain unchanged Observe the following examples:1 She said to me, “Tripti is tall and slim.” (Direct) She told me that Tripti was tall and slim. (Indirect)2 I said to the teacher, “He abused me there.” (Direct) I told the teacher that he had abused me there. (Indirect)3 They said, “He will not object to the proposal.” (Direct) They said that he would not object to the proposal. (Indirect)

God helps those who help themselves

Rule-4 The Pronoun we remains unchanged when(a) It stand for mankind; as- He said, “We are all god’s children.” (Direct) He said that we are all God’s children. (Indirect)(b) It includes the person spoken to; is – She said, “We should always speak the truth.” (Direct) She said that we should always speak the truth. (Indirect)

Change in Words showing Nearness (Proximity)

Rule When the Present Tense of the Reported Speech changes into Past Tense, words expressing neamess are changed into those showing a distance:-ago changes into before come changes into go (seldom)here changes into there hither changes into thitherhence changes into thencehereby changes into therebylast night, week, the previous night, week,month or year etc month or year etc.next day, week, the following day, week,month or year etc. month or year etcthis changes into that these changes into thosetoday changes into that daytomorrow changes into the next (following) dayyesterday changes into the previous (last) dayto-night changes into that nightObserve the following examples:1 Mohan said to me, “I shall come to you today.” (Direct) Mohan told me that he would come to me that day. (Indirect)2 The farmer said, “It was very hot yesterday.” (Direct) The farmer said that it had been very hot the previous day. (Indirect)3 The traveller said, “I shall leave tomorrow.” (Direct) The traveller said that he would leave the next day. (Indirect)Conversion of Assertive Sentences

A Direct to Indirect While reporting Assertive sentences indirectly, observe the following rules:-1 The Reporting Verb – say – is changed into – tell – if there is an object after it, otherwise it remains unchanged.2 Remove the comma and the inverted commas and start the reported speech with the Conjunction -that.3 Nouns or Pronouns in the vocative case are treated as objects of their verbs.4 Changes of tenses, pronouns and the words showing nearness are carried on accordingly.5 Other general rules are to be observed. Late is better than never

Observe the following examples:1 The teacher said, “Raju, you are a lazy boy.” (Direct) The teacher told Raju that he was a lazy boy. (Indirect)2 He said to me, “I do not like your habits.” (Direct) He told me that he did not like my habits. (Indirect)3 The teacher said, “I shall not take my class today.” (direct) The teacher said that he would not take his class that day. (Indirect)4 Mother said to me, “You are just like your father.” (Direct) Mother told me that I was just like my father. (Indirect)

B Indirect to Direct While changing Assertive Sentences from Indirect form to Direct Form of speech the rules given above are reversed.

Observe the following examples:1 He told his mother that he would become a brave general one day. (Indirect) He said, “Mother, I shall become a brave general one day.” (Direct)2 I told Mala that I would see her the following day. (Indirect) I said to Mala, “I shall see you tomorrow.” (Direct)3 You told her that you had done it. (Indirect) You said to her, “I have done it.” (Direct)4 The Angel told Abu that his name was not there in that book. (Indirect) The Angel said, “Abu, your name is not there in this book.” (Direct)

Conversion of Interrogative SentencesA Direct to IndirectWhile reporting Interrogative Sentences, beginning with Auxiliary Verbs, indirectly, observe the following rules:-1 The Reporting Verb – say – is changed into – ask or inquire etc. if there is an object after the reporting verb.2 Remove the comma and the inverted commas and start the reported speech with the conjunction – if or whether.3 Change the interrogative form of the reported speech into Assertive form (Helping Verb after Subject).4 Nouns or Pronouns in the vocative case are treated as objects of their verbs.5 Other general rules are observed too.Observe the following examples:1 The Visitor said to me, “Is your father at home?” (Direct) The visitor asked me if my father was at home. (Indirect)2 Netaji said to his men, “Are you ready to die for your country?” (Direct) Netaji asked his men if they were ready to die for their country. (Indirect)3 The host said to the guest, “Would you like to have a cup of tea?” (Direct) The host asked the guest if he would like to have a cup of tea. (Indirect)4 Sohan said, “May I use your pen, Mohan?” (Direct) Sohan asked Mohan if he might use his pen. (Indirect)5 The clerk said to his officer, “Shall I type this letter again, Sir?” (Direct) The clerk asked his officer respectfully if he should type that letter again. (Indirect)Never speak ill of others

6 The crow said, “Are the grapes sour, Mr. Fox?” (Direct) The crow asked the fox if the grapes were sour. (Indirect)B Indirect to DirectWhile changing this type of interrogative sentence from Indirect to Direct Form of Speech the rules given above are reversed.Observe the following examples:1 He asked me if the should open the window. (Indirect) He said to me, “Should I open the window?” (Direct)2 The traveller asked the man if he could tell him the way to the nearest inn. (Indirect) The traveller said to the man, “Can you tell me the way to the nearest inn?” (Direct)3 I asked Rakesh if he would go with us for a picinic. (Indirect) I said, “Will you go with us for a picnic, Rakesh?” (Direct)C Direct to IndirectWhile reporting Interrogative Sentences, starting with (What, Why, How, When, ….. etc) indirectly,Observe the following rules:1 The Reporting Verb – say – is changed into – ask or inquire – etc. if there is an Object after the Reporting Verb.2 Remove the comma and the inverted commas and start the Reported Speech with the Interrogative word itself.3 Change the Interrogative Form of the Reported Speech into Assertive form (Helping Verb after Subject).4 Nouns and Pronouns in the vocative case are treated as Objects of their verbs.5 Other general rules are to be observed too.Observe the following examples:1 The teacher said to Gopal, “Why are you late?” (Direct) The teacher asked Gopal why he was late. (Indirect)2 Geeta said to Suresh, “Why did you break my slate?” (Direct) Geeta asked to Suresh why he had broken her slate. (Indirect)3 He said to me, “How have you done this sum?” (Direct) He asked me how I had done that sum. (Indirect)4 Raman said to the policeman, “Which is the short-cut to the railway-station?” (Direct) Raman asked the policeman which the short-cut to the railway-station. (Indirect)D Indirect to Direct Observe the following examples:1 She asked me what my name was. (Indirect) She said to me, “What is your name?” (Direct)2 Ram asked her where she lived. (Indirect) Ram said to her, “Where do you live?” (Direct)3 The lady asked Ramesh when he had met her brother. (Indirect) The lady said to Ramesh, “When did you meet my brother?” (Direct)As many mouths, as many tonguesConversions of Imperative Sentences

While reporting Imperative Sentences indirectly, observe the following rules:1 The reporting verb – say – etc. is changed into – order, request, warn, advise or propose etc.2 Nouns and Pronouns in the Vocative Case are treated as Objects of their verbs.3 Changes of pronouns, tense and the words showing nearness are carried on.4 Other general rules are observed too.

A Direct to Indirect Observe the following examples:1 The servant said to his master, “Pardon me this time.” (Direct) The servant requested his master to pardon him that time. (Indirect)2 The queen said to the maid, “Make my bed.” (Direct) The queen ordered the maid to make her bed. (Indirect)3 The doctor said to the patient, “Take only liquid food for three days at least.” (Direct)The doctor advised the patient to take only liquid food for three days at least. (Indirect)4 Raju said to me, “Let us go for a river-bath.” (Direct) Raju proposed to me that we should go for a river bath. (Indirect)5 Shanta said to Sheela, “Let him not deceive you.” (Direct) Shanta warned Sheela not to let him deceive her. (Indirect)6 The father said to his son, “Don’t do like that.” (Direct) The father forbade his son to do like that. (Indirect)

B Indirect to Direct1 The lawyer directed the witness to say as he told him. (Indirect) The lawyer said to the witness, “Say as I tell you.” (Direct)2 He proposed to his friends that they should have an outing. (Indirect) He said to his friends, “Let us have an outing.” (Direct)3 The mother advised her son not to waste his time. (Indirect) The mother said, “Don’t waste your time, my son.” (Direct)4 Ramesh ordered his servant to fetch him water. (Indirect) Ramesh said to his servant, “Fetch we water.” (Direct)5 She requested him to lend her his book. (Indirect) She said to him, “Lend me your book, please.” (Direct)

As you sow, so shall you reap

Conversion of Optative Sentences While reporting Optative Sentences indirectly, observe the following rules:1 Change the reporting verb – say – into wish or pray etc.2 Change the Optative form into assertive form (Subject + helping verb + Verb + Object).3 Introduce the reported speech with the conjunction that.4 Change the tenses and pronouns according to rules.5 Change the vocatives into objects of their verbs.6 Other general rules are observed too.A Direct to IndirectObserve the following examples:1 The old mother said to her son, “May you live long and prosper!” (Direct) The old mother wished that her son might live long and prosper. (Indirect)2 “God save the king,” said the people. (Direct) The people prayed that God might save the king. (Indirect)3 “Would that I were rich,” said the poor beggar. (Direct) The poor beggar wished that he had been rich. (Indirect)4 He said to me, “Good Morning, sir.” (Direct) He wished me Good Morning respectfully. (Indirect)

B Indirect to Direct

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